Research is a search on a particular topic to find a solution to the problem, the addition of new knowledge to the existing one or formulating a hypothesis. E.g., Market research on the sale of any particular product which has been decreased. Research helps in bringing new ideas to solve problems which have direct utility or application, it helps in progress and develops logical thinking. The objective of research to explore answers to questions and to find out the hidden truth which has not been disclosed.
There are different types of research e.g., the Basic study of the life cycle of bacteria to determine its pathogenesis. Applied research is to find out a solution to some existing problem which has direct utility e.ginvolves finding surveys, or it is fact-basedthe quality of particular substance like purity etc., or it is studying human behavior.
To start research, design is required which helps us in planning research systemically which involves plan how data has to be gathered, i.e. how sampling will be done, statistical analysis design to be used and techniques for analysis it may include a plan of budget expenditure on research, etc. Good research design should be efficient to provide minimum errors, without any biases, should lie under budget and complete under the set timeline.
Research design should be based on three principles, i.e. the principle of replication which involves repeating the investigation of the same sample by random testing, the principle of randomization to avoid biases, i.e. random selection of samples under investigation, the principle of a local variable which involves measurement of any extraneous variable by measuring its variability.